Dr. Inturrisi's current research activities are directed to a determination of the comparative effectiveness of interventions used for chronic pain management. This research is prospectively and retrospectively examining the long term outcomes of treatments for chronic cancer and noncancer pain received by patients at four New York City hospital-based outpatient Pain Clinics. The effectiveness information obtained will allow a determination of which patients benefit from the currently available interventions used for the management of chronic pain and the cost effectiveness of these treatments. This approach should improve pain management worldwide. Dr. Inturrisi continues to have an interest in the role of glutamate receptors in injury-induced pain, opioid tolerance, dependence and addictive behaviors. This preclinical research employs molecular genetic approaches (Cre-loxP and siRNA) to produce spatial knockouts of selected receptors and signaling proteins. These studies are intended to discover new treatments for pain and drug addiction.