Stem cells have the unique dual property of self-renewal and differentiation capacity. Therefore, progress in understanding stem cell biology is considered essential for harnessing the potential of regenerative medicine to maintain normal tissue homeostasis as well as for cellular therapies. In this course, experts in stem cell biology from Weill Cornell and Memorial Sloan Kettering will discuss a spectrum of topics that cover the current literature on this fast-moving and exciting field. First, we will explore the meaning of embryonic stem cell pluripotency and recent progress in reprogramming differentiated cells into a stem cell state. Second, various examples of adult tissue-restricted stem cells will be discussed. Third, the ability to use stem cells for disease modeling and the production of defined and clinically relevant cell types will be examined. Finally, efforts at targeting cancer stem cells and other therapeutic approaches will be covered.